Steven Cook – Princeton University Scientists Create Crystals from Light – 9-20-14

The experimental apparatus is mounted inside a special refrigerator capable of reaching temperatures 1/100th of a degree above absolute zero. This necessary to keep the device isolated from the 'background photons' present at higher temperatures.

Thanks to Cindy, who comments: “Not surprising to me … I am light and I am solid … LOL!”

By David Freeman,  The Huffington Post, September 16, 2014 – http://tinyurl.com/m5y9aml

It’s easy to shine light through a crystal, but researchers at Princeton University are turning light into crystals–essentially creating “solid light.”

“It’s something that we have never seen before,” Dr. Andrew Houck, associate professor of electrical engineering and one of the researchers, said in a written statement issued by the university.

“This is a new behavior for light.”

New behavior is right. For generations, physics students have been taught that photons–the subatomic particles that make up light–don’t interact with each other. But the researchers were able to make photons interact very strongly.

To make that happen, the researchers assembled a structure of 100 billion atoms of superconducting material to create a sort of “artificial atom.” Then they placed the structure near a superconducting wire containing photons, which–as a result of the strange rules of quantum entanglement–caused the photons to take on some of the characteristics of the artificial atom.

“We have used this blending together of the photons and the atom to artificially devise strong interactions among the photons,” Darius Sadri, a postdoctoral researcher at the university and another one of the researchers, said in the statement. “These interactions then lead to completely new collective behavior for light–akin to the phases of matter, like liquids and crystals, studied in condensed matter physics.”

Pretty complicated stuff for sure. But what exactly is the point of the ongoing research?

One point is to work toward development of exotic materials, including room-temperature superconductors. Those are hypothetical materials that scientists believe could be used to create ultrasensitive sensors and computers of unprecedented speed–and which might even help solve the world’s energy problems.

“This work is not going to lead to a lightsaber,” Houck joked in an email to The Huffington Post, “unless you are speaking of a metaphorical tool that will cut through our veil of ignorance like a lightsaber through a tauntaun.”

A paper describing the research on “solid light” was published online Sept. 8 in the journal Physical Review X.

 

http://goldenageofgaia.com/2014/09/20/scientists-say-theyve-created-a-freaky-new-form-of-light/

Steven Cook – WikiLeaks Documents Discuss Extraterrestrials, UFOs – Golden Age Of Gaia .com – 7-7-14

ufoBy Tara MacIsaac, Epoch Times, June 24, 2014 – http://tinyurl.com/pmoyh7z

The universe is full of mysteries that challenge our current knowledge. In “Beyond Science” Epoch Times collects stories about these strange phenomena to stimulate the imagination and open up previously undreamed of possibilities. Are they true? You decide.

Here’s a look at some of the mentions of unidentified flying objects (UFOs) and extraterrestrials in the U.S. government cables released by WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange.

1. Prominent Lithuanian Politician Says UFOs Directed by Russians to Exert Influence

A 2006 cable from the American Embassy in Vilnius, Lithuania, recounts a cryptic comment by the Prime Minister’s adviser Albinas Januska.

The cable states: “Reflecting his self-image as a patriot fighting off Russian influence, he [Januska] also warned of the existence of ‘a group of people, who are directed from the East, a group of UFOs, who are making influence from the Cosmos,’ adding elliptically that, ‘there also exists a decreasing group of persons, who are trying to rationally analyze the situation and to objectively evaluate what is happening.’”

UFOs can refer to unidentified foreign organizations as well as to unidentified flying objects; aside from his reference to the cosmos, it could seem Januska meant the former. Januska held much power in the country, as is noted in the cable: “Albinas Januska’s continuing influence in Lithuanian politics cannot be overstated. In addition to being a cunning strategist, he is extraordinarily well-connected among Lithuania’s political class.”

2. Tajik Mayor Says There’s Life on Other Planets, Peace and Unity on Earth Necessary

Tajikstan is a Central Asian country bordered by Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and China. The mayor of the Tajik city of Dushanbe, Mahmadsaid Ubaidulloev, met with U.S. Ambassador Ken Gross in 2010. Gross summarized his meeting with Ubaidulloev in a classified document later released by Wikileaks.

The talk mostly concerned opening an American corner in the city, upcoming elections, the losses suffered by Tajiks and Americans in Afghanistan, and a dam project. But the topic of extraterrestrials also entered the conversation.

Gross wrote: “[Ubaidulloev] asserted the existence of life on other planets, caveating this by noting that we should focus on solving our problems on Earth.” Gross quoted Ubaidulloev: “We know there is life on other planets, but we must make peace here first.”

The chat was not a pleasant one for Gross, who summed it up as “a right painful 90 minutes.” Gross characterized Ubaidulloev as “difficult, unpredictable, and sometimes hostile.” During their meeting, the mayor obviously lied about free elections, voluntary contributions to the dam project, and free media, according to Gross.

3. UFO Religion in Canada Allegedly Tries to Clone Humans

A couple of unclassified documents, one listed as coming from the American Embassy in Ottawa and the other from the American Consulate in Montreal, express some concern over the Raelian religion in Canada.

The Raelians believe humanity was created by extraterrestrials as a lab experiment, according to the documents. They had targeted high schools in the province of Quebec to persuade Roman Catholics to renounce their faith. The Raelians even had a plan to give students crosses to burn, according to the cables.

One of the documents cites local news analysis in stating that: “The ultimate goal of Raelians is to create life in a laboratory which would make human beings immortal and enable them to create another civilization on another planet. In the meantime … [they] want to build an embassy in Israel to welcome the Elohim when they come back in 2035. The group has also been criticized for advocating the use of genetics for eugenic attempts at improving the human race.”

At the time the cable was written, the group had claimed to have successfully cloned a human.

Other references to extraterrestrials and UFOs in the WikiLeaks documents include the following:

Belarussian Minister of Defense Yuriy Zhadobin said in an unclassified cable that the ministry no longer investigates paranormal phenomena as it did in Soviet times due to lack of funds.

Another unclassified cable mentioned that Japan’s Chief Cabinet Secretary Machimura believes extraterrestrials have flown spaceships near Earth and he was not happy about his government’s first official dismissal of all UFO reports.

Another discussed the tsunami predictions made by French author Eric Julien who has said he was abducted by aliens. The cable states that Julien “claimed he had received information psychically,” learning that “a comet fragment would crash into the Atlantic Ocean on May 25, 2006, and cause a giant tsunami.” The prediction did not come to pass.

 

http://goldenageofgaia.com/2014/07/07/wikileaks-documents-discuss-extraterrestrials-ufos/

 

Steven Cook – Matter Will be Created from Light Within a Year, Claim Scientists – GoldenAgeOfGaia – 5-26-14

In theory light and matter are interchangeable, but a practical demonstration was thought to be impossible. Photograph: Lawrence Manning/Corbis

 

Stephen: In a neat demonstration of E=mc2, physicists now believe they can create electrons and positrons from colliding photons. In otherwords turn light into matter! Thanks to Dennis.

By Ian Sample, The Guardian – May 19, 2014- http://tinyurl.com/mdqsnxz

Researchers have worked out how to make matter from pure light and are drawing up plans to demonstrate the feat within the next 12 months.

The theory underpinning the idea was first described 80 years ago by two physicists who later worked on the first atomic bomb. At the time they considered the conversion of light into matter impossible in a laboratory.

But in a report published on Sunday, physicists at Imperial College London claim to have cracked the problem using high-powered lasers and other equipment now available to scientists.

“We have shown in principle how you can make matter from light,” said Steven Rose at Imperial. “If you do this experiment, you will be taking light and turning it into matter.”

The scientists are not on the verge of a machine that can create everyday objects from a sudden blast of laser energy. The kind of matter they aim to make comes in the form of subatomic particles invisible to the naked eye.

The original idea was written down by two US physicists, Gregory Breit and John Wheeler, in 1934. They worked out that – very rarely – two particles of light, or photons, could combine to produce an electron and its antimatter equivalent, a positron. Electrons are particles of matter that form the outer shells of atoms in the everyday objects around us.

But Breit and Wheeler had no expectations that their theory would be proved any time soon. In their study, the physicists noted that the process was so rare and hard to produce that it would be “hopeless to try to observe the pair formation in laboratory experiments”.

Oliver Pike, the lead researcher on the study, said the process was one of the most elegant demonstrations of Einstein’s famous relationship that shows matter and energy are interchangeable currencies. “The Breit-Wheeler process is the simplest way matter can be made from light and one of the purest demonstrations of E=mc2,” he said.

Writing in the journal Nature Photonics, the scientists describe how they could turn light into matter through a number of separate steps. The first step fires electrons at a slab of gold to produce a beam of high-energy photons. Next, they fire a high-energy laser into a tiny gold capsule called a hohlraum, from the German for “empty room”. This produces light as bright as that emitted from stars. In the final stage, they send the first beam of photons into the hohlraum where the two streams of photons collide.

The scientists’ calculations show that the setup squeezes enough particles of light with high enough energies into a small enough volume to create around 100,000 electron-positron pairs.

The process is one of the most spectacular predictions of a theory called quantum electrodynamics (QED) that was developed in the run up to the second world war. “You might call it the most dramatic consequence of QED and it clearly shows that light and matter are interchangeable,” Rose told the Guardian.

The scientists hope to demonstrate the process in the next 12 months. There are a number of sites around the world that have the technology. One is the huge Omega laser in Rochester, New York. But another is the Orion laser at Aldermaston, the atomic weapons facility in Berkshire.

A successful demonstration will encourage physicists who have been eyeing the prospect of a photon-photon collider as a tool to study how subatomic particles behave. “Such a collider could be used to study fundamental physics with a very clean experimental setup: pure light goes in, matter comes out. The experiment would be the first demonstration of this,” Pike said.

Andrei Seryi, director of the John Adams Institute at Oxford University, said: “It’s breathtaking to think that things we thought are not connected, can in fact be converted to each other: matter and energy, particles and light. Would we be able in the future to convert energy into time and vice versa?”

 

http://goldenageofgaia.com/2014/05/26/matter-will-be-created-from-light-within-a-year-claim-scientists/

 

 

Steven Cook – Earth’s Moon is a Hollow Space Station – Golden Age Of Gaia – 5-10-14

Have you ever stopped to think about our moon? Evidence describes an alternative story for its origin.
Have you ever stopped to think about our moon? Evidence describes an alternative story for its origin.

By Jeff Roberts, Collective Evolution, December 11, 2013 – http://tinyurl.com/o5gg6zv

“What in blazes is our Moon doing way out there? It’s too far out to be a true satellite of Earth. It is too big to have been captured by the Earth. The chances of such a capture having been effected and the Moon then having taken up a nearly circular orbit about the Earth are too small to make such an eventuality credible… But then, if the Moon is neither a true satellite of the Earth nor a captured one, what is it?”

 Isaac AsimovAsimov on Astronomy,” Doubleday, 1974; Mercury Press 1963; also quoted in Don Wilson’s book, Our Mysterious Spaceship Moon (1975).

THE MOON is the eye in the sky to the inhabitants of Earth. It provides us with the natural tidal cycles which are said to maintain the equilibrium of all species on the planet.

Peculiarly, certain phases of the Moon cycle are even known to affect our moods and emotions. Most will likely never question the existence or makeup of the Moon as it does its usual routine of lighting up the night sky and circling the planet, however many scientists are not convinced that the narrative of its origin is as ‘solid’ as we are lead to believe.

Much controversy exists around the origin and makeup of the Moon today, and one of the largest arguments surrounding the satellite is the solidity (or lack thereof) of its center and the process by which we got our Moon in the first place.

Currently there are around five, widely discussed theories of Moon formation. They are as follows:

1.) Capture – This theory proposes that the Moon was captured by the gravitational pull of the Earth. The one main problem is the capture mechanism. A close encounter with Earth typically results in either collision or altered trajectories. This hypothesis has difficulty explaining the essentially identical oxygen isotope ratios of the two worlds.

2.) Fission – This theory states that during a time when the Earth was forming and was still molten, the spinning of the planet projected out material which became our moon today. The Pacific Ocean was supposedly the area where the Moon came from, however this was debunked considering the immaturity of the ocean floor crust and the knowing that the moon formed much longer ago.

3.) Accretion – This hypothesis states that the Earth and the Moon formed together as a double system from the primordial accretion disk of the Solar System. The problem with this hypothesis is that it does not explain the angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system or why the Moon has a relatively small iron core compared to the Earth (25% of its radius compared to 50% for the Earth).

4.) Georeactor Explosion – A more radical alternative hypothesis, published in 2010, proposes that the Moon may have been formed from the explosion of a georeactor located along the core-mantle boundary at the equatorial plane of the rapidly rotating Earth.

5.) The Giant Impact Theory – This was the most commonly accepted theory up until recently. This theory suggests that long ago a planetary body the size of Mars crashed into Earth expelling a large piece of mass into space which became our Moon. While this hypothesis explains many aspects of the Earth-Moon system, there are still a few unresolved problems facing it, such as the Moon’s volatile elements not being as depleted as expected from such an energetic impact. Another issue is Lunar and Earth isotope comparisons. In 2011, the most precise measurement yet of the isotopic signatures of lunar rocks was published. Surprisingly, the Apollo lunar samples carried an isotopic signature identical to Earth rocks, but different from other Solar system bodies. Since most of the material that went into orbit to form the Moon was thought to come from Theia (the name scientists gave to the impactor), this observation was unexpected. In 2007, researchers from Caltech showed that the likelihood of Theia having an identical isotopic signature as the Earth was very small (<1 percent). Published in 2012, an analysis of titanium isotopes in Apollo lunar samples showed that the Moon has the same composition as the Earth which conflicts with the moon forming far from Earth’s orbit. [3]

The Giant Impact Theory no longer suffices for explaining the formation of our moon.

Unfortunately none of the previous theories provide the answers to the big questions surrounding the Moon’s origins. What’s apparent however is the number of strange facts about the Moon which conjure up many ‘hmms’ about its existence. Let’s take a look at some of them:

1. Moon’s Age: The Moon is far older than previously expected, maybe even older than the Earth or the Sun. The oldest age for the Earth is estimated to be 4.6 billion years old; Moon rocks were dated at 5.3 billion years old, and the dust upon which they were resting was at least another billion years older. Some argue that the Moon may seem older only because its surface never renews itself, whereas the Earth may have rocks that old but have since been recycled through the natural resurfacing of the planet. [4]

2. Rock’s Origin: The chemical composition of the dust upon which the rocks sat differed remarkably from the rocks themselves, contrary to accepted theories that the dust resulted from weathering and breakup of the rocks themselves. The rocks had to have come from somewhere else. [5]

3. Heavier Elements on Surface: Normal planetary composition results in heavier elements in the core and lighter materials at the surface; not so with the Moon. Don Wilson writes in his book Our Mysterious Spaceship Moon,

“The abundance of refractory elements like titanium in the surface areas is so pronounced that several geologists proposed the refractory compounds were brought to the Moon’s surface in great quantity in some unknown way. They don’t know how, but that it was done cannot be questioned.”

4. Water Vapor: On March 7, 1971, lunar instruments placed by the astronauts recorded a vapor cloud of water passing across the surface of the Moon. The cloud lasted 14 hours and covered an area of about 100 square miles. [1]

5. Magnetic Rocks: Moon rocks were magnetized. This is odd because there is no magnetic field on the Moon itself. This could not have originated from a “close call” with Earth—such an encounter would have ripped the Moon apart. There have been many theories that aim to explain this magnetism however they all still sit as theories.

6. Seismic Activity: Hundreds of “moonquakes” are recorded each year that cannot be attributed to meteor strikes. In November, 1958, Soviet astronomer Nikolay A. Kozyrev of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory photographed a gaseous eruption of the Moon near the crater Alphonsus. He also detected a reddish glow that lasted for about an hour. In 1963, astronomers at the Lowell Observatory also saw reddish glows on the crests of ridges in the Aristarchus region. These observations have proved to be precisely identical and periodical, repeating themselves as the Moon moves closer to the Earth. These are probably not natural phenomena.

7. Hollow Moon: The Moon’s mean density is 3.34 gm/cm3 (3.34 times an equal volume of water) whereas the Earth’s is 5.5. What does this mean?

In 1962, NASA scientist Dr. Gordon MacDonald stated,

“If the astronomical data are reduced, it is found that the data require that the interior of the Moon is more like a hollow than a homogeneous sphere.”

Nobel chemist Dr. Harold Urey suggested the Moon’s reduced density is because of large areas inside the Moon where there is “simply a cavity.”

MIT’s Dr. Sean C. Solomon wrote,

“The Lunar Orbiter experiments vastly improved our knowledge of the Moon’s gravitational field… indicating the frightening possibility that the Moon might be hollow.”

In Carl Sagan’s treatise, Intelligent Life in the Universe, the famous astronomer stated, “A natural satellite cannot be a hollow object.”

Therefore, the Moon may not be a “natural” satellite at all.

8. Moon Echoes: On November 20, 1969, the Apollo 12 crew jettisoned the lunar module ascent stage causing it to crash onto the Moon. The LM’s impact (about 40 miles from the Apollo 12 landing site) created an artificial moonquake with startling characteristics—the Moon reverberated like a bell for more than an hour.

This phenomenon was repeated with Apollo 13 (intentionally commanding the third stage to impact the Moon), with even more startling results. Seismic instruments recorded that the reverberations lasted for three hours and twenty minutes and traveled to a depth of twenty-five miles, leading to the conclusion that the Moon has an unusually light—or even no—core. To put it into perspective, when the Earth experiences a large earthquake, the reverberations from the quake usually only last minutes due to the density of the planet.

9. Moon’s Origin: Before the astronauts’ Moon rocks conclusively disproved the theory, the Moon was believed to have originated when a chunk of Earth broke off eons ago. Another theory was that the Moon was created from leftover “space dust” remaining after the Earth was created. Analysis of the composition of moon rocks disproved this theory also.

Another popular theory is that the Moon was somehow “captured” by the Earth’s gravitational attraction. But no evidence exists to support this theory. Isaac Asimov, stated,

“It’s too big to have been captured by the Earth. The chances of such a capture having been affected and the Moon then having taken up nearly circular orbit around our Earth are too small to make such an eventuality credible.”

10. Weird Orbit: Our Moon is the only Moon in the solar system that has a stationary, near-perfect circular orbit (although it is still elliptical). Stranger still, the Moon’s center of mass is about 6000 feet closer to the Earth than its geometric center (which should cause wobbling), but the Moon’s bulge is on the far side of the Moon, away from the Earth. It seems that “something” must have put the moon in orbit with its precise altitude, course, and speed.

11. Moon Diameter: How does one explain the “coincidence” that the Moon is just the right distance, coupled with just the right diameter, to completely cover the sun during an eclipse? Again, Isaac Asimov responds,

“There is no astronomical reason why the moon and the sun should fit so well. It is the sheerest of coincidences, and only the Earth among all the planets is blessed in this fashion.”

 

 

Have you ever stopped to think about our moon? Evidence describes an alternative story for its origin.

 

By Jeff Roberts, Collective Evolution, December 11, 2013 – http://tinyurl.com/o5gg6zv

Henry Kroll, author of Cosmological Ice Ages, discusses the Moon’s arrival in orbit around the Earth (see video below):

“There are no cave paintings of the Moon prior to 11,712 years ago. The oldest painting of the moon we can find is only 9,000 years old in China. Moon rocks date to 6-billion years–older than the Earth. One was dated 20-billion years which is billions of years older than the Big Bang theory.

“If you still think the moon has been up there billions of years where are the Moon meteorites? Mainstream science has only found 13.2 pounds of lunar meteorites–about the same as Mars meteorites. Mars is a lot further from Earth, it has more gravity than the Moon and it has an atmosphere so where are the Moon meteorites. Given the fact that the Moon is covered with craters, we should be able to walk out on the desert and pick up tons of them–even build houses out of them but there aren’t any. If it has been up there billions of years we sould be tripping over Moon meteorites.

“There is only one object up there in the sky with enough mass to tilt Earth 23.5 degrees and that is the Moon. It bounced off the Earth exterminated all the tribes, camels, horses and mastodons in North America 11,712 years ago. I used Arizona edu/impact effect computer. I put in the mass of the moon, 7.35 E 33 kilograms, the mass of the Earth 5.98 E 24 kilograms and angel of 11 degrees and a speed of 2.5 kilometers per second. The resulting impact depressed the Earth’s crust 5 kilometers. The Arctic Ocean is 5 kilometers deep north of Alaska. It took 7oo terramegatons to tilt the rotational pole of Earth 23.5 degrees.

“Tilting Earth 23.5 degrees doubled arable land and doubled the productivity of the oceans because now we have more pronouced summers and winters as sunlight hits the Earth 1,800 miles further north and south thawing out the ice caps. It also doubled the productivity of the oceans releasing more free oxygen. The impact raised sea levels 300 feet. It was an engineered project designed to make Earth more productive for larger human and animal populations. It was terraforming!

The Moon in Mythology

An ancient calendar located in the Courtyard of Kalasasaya in Bolivia tells of a time when our moon wasn’t there.

An ancient calendar located in the Courtyard of Kalasasaya in Bolivia tells of a time when our moon wasn’t there.Theories about the moon actually date back thousands of years as various cultures and civilizations discussed the story of how it came to be where it resides today.

Greek authors Aristotle and Plutarch, and Roman authors Apollonius Rhodius and Ovid all wrote of a group of people called the Proselenes who lived in the central mountainous area of Greece called Arcadia. The Proselenes claimed title to this area because their forebears were there “before there was a moon in the heavens.” [6]

This claim is substantiated by symbols on the wall of the Courtyard of Kalasasaya, near the city of Tiahuanaco, Bolivia, which record that the moon came into orbit around the Earth between 11,500 and 13, 000 years ago, long before recorded history.

Zulu Shaman Credo Mutwa said that Zulu legends believe the Moon to be hollow and the home of the Python or Chitauri, or as David Icke calls them the “Reptilians”, a race of intelligent extraterrestrials. The legend states the Moon was brought here hundreds of generations ago by two brothers, Wowane and Mpanku, who were the leaders of these Reptilian extraterrestrials.

These two were known as the water brothers and they both had scaly skin like a fish. This tale is very similar to the Mesopotamia and Sumerian accounts about the two chief leader brothers Enlil and Enki, (Lords of the Earth). Credo continues telling the Zulu legends of how Wowane and Mpanku stole the Moon in the form of an egg from the “Great Fire Dragon,” and emptied out the yolk until it was hollow. Then they “rolled” the Moon across the sky to the Earth which brought about cataclysmic events on this planet that ended the “Golden Age” of the past. [7]

African Zulu legends tell of an extra-terrestrial race called the Chitauri who hollowed out a moon and brought it to Earth to use as a hub to oversee the control of the human race. This legend fits well into the theory of the reptilian-human hybrids which are thought to run our world today.

African Zulu legends tell of an extra-terrestrial race called the Chitauri who hollowed out a moon and brought it to Earth to use as a hub to oversee the control of the human race. This legend fits well into the theory of the reptilian-human hybrids which are thought to run our world today.

Credo Mutwa claims that the Earth was very different then it is now before the Moon had arrived. There weren’t any seasons and the planet was perpetually engulfed by a canopy of water vapor. People did not feel the strong glare of the Sun that we do now, and they could only see it through a watery mist. The Earth was once a beautiful place, a lovely place, lush and green with giant Redwoods, Violets and Ferns with a gentle drizzle and mist. The water canopy fell to the Earth as a cataclysm of rain when the Moon was put into place in the Earth’s orbit. This is symbolized in the Bible when it rains for 40 days and 40 nights.

The arrival of the Moon and the Reptilians changed everything on Earth. It modified the Earth’s rotation and angle. The earth turned over on its axis as we are upside down, as the legend says, and brought more powerful tidal systems that once had been much calmer. Women did not menstruate before the Moon arrived.

Zulus and other native African accounts say the Moon was built far, far, away to keep an eye on people, and as a vehicle to travel the Universe. Credo says that the Reptilians “Giant Mother-ship” is the Moon and that’s where they escaped to during the cataclysms of the “Great Flood,” which they had caused by manipulating the Moon and creating other cosmic events.

Could It Be True?

Outrageous as the spacecraft Moon theory might first appear, consider how this model reconciles all the mysteries of the Moon. It explains why the Moon gives evidence of being older than the Earth and perhaps even our solar system and why there are three distinct layers within the Moon, with the densest materials on the outside layer, as one would expect of the “hull” of a spacecraft would be. It could also explain why no sign of water has been found on the Moon’s surface, yet there is evidence it exists deep inside. This theory also would explain the strange maria and mascons, perhaps the remnants of the machinery used to hollow out the Moon. The idea of an artificial satellite could explain the odd, rhythmic “moon quakes” as artificial constructs reacting the same way during periods of stress from the Earth’s pull. And artificial equipment beneath the Moon’s surface might be the source of the gas clouds that have been observed.

A scientist called Irwin I. Shapiro who works at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for astrophysics said, “Looking at all the anomaly’s and unanswered questions about the Moon, the best explanation for the Moon is observational error, it doesn’t exist” Irwin I. Shapiro is a respected figure in astrophysics, his research includes using gravitational lenses to assess the age of the universe.

Strange Anomalies on the Moon

The following strange structures and happenings further propagate the mystery surrounding the moon:

1. Ages of Flashes: Aristarchus, Plato, Eratosthenes, Biela, Rabbi Levi, and Posidonius all reported anomalous lights on the moon. NASA, one year before the first lunar landing, reported 570+ lights and flashes were observed on the moon from 1540 to 1967. [9]

2. Operation Moon Blink: NASA’s Operation Moon Blink detected 28 lunar events in a relatively short period of time. [8]

3. The Shard: The Shard, an obelisk-shaped object that towers 1½ miles from the Ukert area of the moon’s surface, was discovered by Orbiter 3 in 1968. Dr. Bruce Cornet, who studied the amazing photographs, stated,

“No known natural process can explain such a structure.” [10]

Photograph taken by the Lunar Orbiter conjure up some questions about unknown structures found on the Moon.

4. The Tower: One of the most curious features ever photographed on the Lunar surface (Lunar Orbiter photograph III-84M) is an amazing spire that rises more than 5 miles from the Sinus Medii region of the lunar surface.
5. The Obelisks: Lunar Orbiter II took several photographs in November 1966 that showed several obelisks, one of which was more than 150 feet tall.

“. . . the spires were arranged in precisely the same as the apices of the three great pyramids.”

moon 9

moon 10

moon 11

 

The subject of the Moon is a touchy one for many. Any suggestion of the Moon not being what we’ve been told it is usually follows with accusations of “conspiracy” and pseudo-science. Although there may be many theories that aim to debunk all aspects of this theory, there are too many factors that still don’t add up. How is it that seemingly unconnected ancient cultures have their own version of the artificial Moon myth? Why are there unexplained geometric structures on the surface of the Moon which correlate to the structures found in ancient Egypt and other primitive locations on Earth? How is it that by miraculous “chance” the Moon perfectly eclipses our Sun?

NASA is a government agency; government agencies are known to have a history of information concealment from the general public. Questioning NASA’s story isn’t ludicrous. Many speculate that NASA discovered unsettling information when they finally visited the Moon decades ago, information that would have caused a lot of commotion if leaked to the public.

Nevertheless, we are left simply curious, as no one can currently complete the narrative of the Moon’s origin. We encourage you to think outside of the box in this regard, as history and mainstream science provide only a limited perspective on the matter. Perhaps George Lucas was on to something after all…

moon 12

 

http://goldenageofgaia.com/2014/05/10/earths-moon-is-a-hollow-space-station-part-12/

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Steven Cook – Mysteries of the Universe – Gravitational Wave Discovery – New Era in Physics – 3-18-14

Universe 4

Golden Age Of Gaia .com

http://goldenageofgaia.com/2014/03/18/mysteries-of-the-universe-gravitational-wave-discovery-heralds-whole-new-era-in-physics/

Scientists detected telltale signs of gravitational waves using the Bicep2 telescope (far left) at the south pole. Photograph: Lindsey Bleem/South Pole Telescope blog

By Stuart Clark, The Guardian – March 17 2014

http://tinyurl.com/qy9yt6k

Gravitational waves could help unite general relativity and quantum mechanics to reveal a ‘theory of everything’

Scientists have heralded a “whole new era” in physics with the detection of “primordial gravitational waves” – the first tremors of the big bang.

The minuscule ripples in space-time are the last prediction of Albert Einstein’s 1916 general theory of relativity to be verified. Until now, there has only been circumstantial evidence of their existence.

The discovery also provides a deep connection between general relativity and quantum mechanics, another central pillar of physics.

“This is a genuine breakthrough,” says Andrew Pontzen, a cosmologist from University College London who was not involved in the work. “It represents a whole new era in cosmology and physics as well.” If the discovery is confirmed, it will almost certainly lead to a Nobel Prize.

The detection, which has yet to be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, was announced on Monday at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and comes from the Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization 2 (Bicep2) experiment – a telescope at the South Pole.

The detection also provides the first direct evidence for a long-held hypothesis called inflation. This states that a fraction of a second after the big bang, the universe was driven to expand hugely. Without this sudden growth spurt, the gravitational waves would not have been amplified enough to be visible.Galaxyexpansion

“Detecting this signal is one of the most important goals in cosmology today. A lot of work by a lot of people has led up to this point,” said John Kovac of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, who leads the BICEP2 collaboration.

The primordial gravitational waves were visible because they created a twisting pattern called polarisation in light from the big bang. Polarisation is the direction in which a light wave oscillates. It is invisible to human eyes, which only register brightness and colour. Sunglasses made from polaroid sheets work by blocking out all light waves except those with a specific polarisation.

Light from the big bang has been turned into microwaves by its passage across space. These microwaves were discovered in 1964 and are known as the cosmic microwave background radiation. Bicep2 was designed to measure their polarisation.

Rumours began on Friday that the detection of primordial gravitational waves would be announced. It had been thought that a gravitational wave signal would have to be surprisingly strong to be detected by the current technology used in ground-based detectors.

The Bicep2 team have spent three years analysing the signal in order to be certain. “This has been like looking for a needle in a haystack, but instead we found a crowbar,” said co-leader Clem Pryke of the University of Minnesota.

Nevertheless, the signal will have to be confirmed. “I think a lot of people will be looking very critically at this,” says Pontzen.

Confirmation could come as early as August. The European Space Agency’s Planck satellite has been looking for this same signal and is due to announce its findings.

Whereas Bicep2 has only looked at part of the sky visible from the south pole, Planck has mapped the whole sky.

If it confirms the signal and its strength then cosmologists will be presented with an extraordinarily rich seam of data about the conditions immediately after the big bang. “We are going to be able to measure all sorts of subtle details to start pinning down how physics operates in those utterly extreme conditions,” says Pontzen.

This could reveal the interface between the two great theories of physics: general relativity and quantum mechanics. Despite almost a century of effort, the world’s physicists have not been able to show how these theories work together. The primordial gravitational waves that produced the signal seen by Bicep2 were produced in interactions that took place at a trillion times the energies that can be produced in the Large Hadron Collider at Cern.

“This is like turning the whole universe into a particle physics experiment,” said Hiranya Peiris, a cosmologist from University College London.

It could even show them the way to join the two theories together, producing what is sometimes called “the theory of everything”.

“Gravitational waves emitted at the time of the big bang can tell us how the universe came to exist,” said Dr Ed Daw, an astronomer at the University of Sheffield. “If these results prove correct, we will have new key information on the very early universe, information that is hard to get from any other source.

“Gravitational waves are a new frontier in astrophysics and cosmology. If today’s findings are accurate then it will further strengthen our understanding of how the universe formed.”

The signal detected by Bicep2 is not easy to see because it is masked by distortions caused by the light’s passage through clusters of galaxies, and through dust clouds in the Milky Way. These distortions must be carefully stripped away before the primordial signal can be revealed.

“They have thought very carefully about how to remove the experimental and other contaminating effects. They are a very experienced team and this is the real deal but it doesn’t mean that they are necessarily right,” said Daw.

Some subtle contamination may yet be affecting their data. The only way to know for sure is to have other telescopes and spacecraft see the signal too.

There is already a minor disagreement. Last year the European Space Agency published preliminary results from its Planck satellite. They were based on data that measured temperature rather than polarisation, but close examination reveals that they are not a smooth fit with the results announced by Bicep2.

“It’s not completely incompatible but it does raise questions. It needs thinking about in a calm way,” said Pontzen.

Taken at face value, however, these new results mean that cosmologists can now begin to tease out the details of the big bang. The term inflation is used to represent a class of models that each have different attributes and effects on the universe. The strength and the pattern of the gravitational wave signal will be used to tell cosmologists about which inflationary models are the correct ones.

Although no cosmologist truly doubts the existence of gravitational waves nothing like today’s announcement has ever been seen before. “This is a different kettle of fish entirely. We are talking about the fingerprint of the big bang in gravitational waves on the whole universe,” said Daw.

Gravitational waves are ripples in the space-time continuum, which was envisaged by Albert Einstein in his general theory of relativity. Photograph: Keystone/Getty Images

Gravitational waves are ripples in the space-time continuum, which was envisaged by Albert Einstein in his general theory of relativity. Photograph: Keystone/Getty Images

What are Gravitational Waves?

By Stuart Clark, The Guardian – March 17, 2014

http://tinyurl.com/merh3oh

What does the apparent discovery of gravitational waves by the Bicep telescope say about inflation and the big bang?

What are gravitational waves?

Gravitational waves are ripples that carry energy across the universe. They were predicted to exist by Albert Einstein in 1916 as a consequence of his General Theory of Relativity. Although there is strong circumstantial evidence for their existence, gravitational waves have not been directly detected before. This is because they are minuscule – a million times smaller than an atom. They are like tiny waves on a lake – from far away, the lake’s surface looks glassy smooth; only up very close can the details of the surface be seen. Particularly exciting are “primordial” gravitational waves, which were generated in the first moments of the universe’s birth. These carry vital information about how the universe began.

What is general relativity?

In 1916, Albert Einstein discovered a mathematical way to explain gravity. He called it his general theory of relativity. It relied on a set of coordinates that described space and time together, known as the space-time continuum. Matter and energy warp the space-time continuum like heavy weight on a mattress. The warping creates the force of gravity. Gravitational waves are ripples in the space-time continuum (instead of an ordinary mattress, think of a waterbed). It isn’t all esoteric mathematics. General relativity tells us how gravity affects time, which must be taken into account by your satnav to tell you accurately where you are.

What is the significance of this discovery?

If scientists at Harvard University have detected gravitational waves, it is significant for two reasons. First, this opens up a whole new way of studying the Universe, allowing scientists to infer the processes at work that produced the waves. Second, it proves a hypothesis called inflation. This can be used to give us information about the origin of the universe, known as the big bang.

How can gravitational waves be detected?

A telescope at the south pole, called Bicep (Background Imaging of cosmic Extragalactic Polarisation), has been searching for evidence of gravitational waves by detecting a subtle property of the cosmic microwave background radiation. This radiation was produced in the big bang. It was originally discovered by American scientists in 1964 using a radio telescope and has been called the “echo” of the big bang. Bicep has measured the large-scale polarisation of this microwave radiation. Only primordial gravitational waves can imprint such a pattern, and only then if they have been amplified by inflation.

What is inflation?

The big bang was originally hypothesised by Belgian priest and physicist Georges Lemaître. He called it “the day without yesterday” because it was the moment when time and space began. But the big bang does not fit all astronomers’ observations. The distribution of matter across space is too uniform to have come from the big bang as originally conceived. So in the 1970s, cosmologists postulated a sudden enlargement of the universe, called inflation, that occurred in the first minuscule fraction of a second after the big bang. But confirming the idea has proved difficult. Only inflation can amplify the primordial gravitational wave signal enough to make it detectable. If primordial gravitational waves have been seen, it means that inflation must have taken place.

What next? Do cosmologists just pack up and go home?

No way. Now the work really begins. Einstein knew that general relativity did not mesh with another theory of physics called quantum mechanics. Whereas general relativity talks about gravity and the universe as a whole, quantum mechanics talks about the small scale of particles and the other forces of nature, the strong and weak nuclear forces, and electromagnetism. Despite almost a century of effort, the world’s physicists have not been able to show how these theories work together. The primordial gravitational waves were generated when gravity and the universe were working on the same scale as particles and the other forces of nature. This detection and the subsequent analysis will hopefully tell us how. If it does, this could lead to what physics wistfully call “the theory of everything”.

http://goldenageofgaia.com/2014/03/18/mysteries-of-the-universe-gravitational-wave-discovery-heralds-whole-new-era-in-physics/